The pedagogical objectives of this lesson:
– how to create a network architecture
– create a clear architecture
– quickly troubleshooting your network architecture
Why this lesson
The first network exercises proposed by CISCO or your university are to create a network architecture from scratch. this includes:
– create an IP address plan
– make a network scheme
In real life, I have had to redo the whole VLAN part and IP address range several times… Why?
– the VLAN design was poorly thought out
– IP address ranges are too small
When starting a business, it's important to get off to a good start!
A network architecture is not done on paper, on Paint, on Packet Tracer, but under Microsoft Visio!
Essential software: Microsoft Visio.
There are three types of network architecture:
– wiring plan
– physical architecture
– logical architecture
Do not try to put all the information on a single plane, the result will in any case be mediocre, rough and not clear. Assume that an architecture is always clear to the person who makes it, but that the real goal is that it is clear to everyone: any network administrator must understand at a glance the architecture of the company, this will allow it to greatly accelerate its troubleshooting time.
The wiring plan
The wiring plan lets you know which cable or fiber is going where.
The logical architecture helps to understand how the corporate network works. We need to see at a glance all the network redundancies, whether the active equipment has been connected to the chain or not.
The physical architecture makes it possible to quickly locate yourself geographically. You have just arrived in a company with more than 10,000 people and you are a network technician? You'll be happy to have the plans of the building and know in which room and in which bay your switch is!
Create your own network architecture
A network architecture does not create itself in any way, there are steps to respect:
– setting up working groups
– associate these working groups with VLANs
– set an IP address plan based on the VLANs chosen
– create your network architecture
Set working groups
Let's forget about the network part and focus on the functional part of the business. What do we have in our company?
– network equipment
– customer posts (computer, phone, tablet)
Each working group will use the company's resources in a different way, so we will put them in different working groups.
What is a VLAN? Visit our VLAN article.
VLAN – working group.
– VLAN 10 – Server
– VLAN 20 – Customers
– VLAN 30 – Telephony
– etc …
Why VLAN 10,20,30 and not 2,3,4...?
See you in the article Private VLAN. To get the answer to your question! If you're new to networking, just trust me;)
Set an IP address plan
Any network equipment needs an IP address to operate. In a corporate network, you can't take any address range. You can only choose private IP addresses.
Which network to choose?
You can do whatever you want! But in the world of networks, there are a few habits…
For the customer part:
Use address range 192.168.0.0/16 or address range 172.16.0.0/12.
In the current class, you are often asked to set a perfect IP address range based on the number of IP addresses requested. Except that in real life, this network will evolve. The IP address plan is the basis of a computer architecture. So look wide! Imagine the size of the company in 10 years, 20 years…
In this example, I did not take the head, I put /24 from all over !!!
If the term /24 does not speak to you, I give you an appointment here: Address IPv4.
You will notice that the 3rd byte of our IP address ranges corresponds to the vLAN number of the latter. It's a personal habit that I like to implement 🙂
Set a default gateway:
You have two choices:
– the first IP address available from your network
– the last IP address available from your network
You can choose another IP address but it's going to be messy!
For interconnection links:
Use address range 172.16.0.0/12 or address range 10.0.0.0/8 .
Why /29 and not /30?
A network in /30 offers 2 IP addresses available while a network in /29 offers 6. Why take an /29 network for interconnections then? Because you never know!! Imagine you had to add an IP or other probe to this network? You will then be glad to have seen a little wider 🙂
You can do as you please! But if you follow these rules, your teachers and collaborators will be happy 🙂 Because they're used to working with these IP address ranges!
Create network architecture
The title of architecture
The title of the architecture is very important, do me something clean with the logo of the box and it will be perfect 🙂
Before drawing a network architecture, you need to know what to draw 🙂 Network equipment has an international standardization in representation:
P.S. : Plenty is missing, but they are no longer of much use (hubs, hubs, ATM routers, etc.) …
Important: Any link must be straight! The architecture must be clear! The primary objective of an architecture is to be obvious at first glance! We need to know in an instant who is connected to whom and if there is redundancy in your network! To do this, your interconnection links must be straight.
At the very top of your architecture, we must have the WAN part, the heart of your network.
At the bottom we have to have the "customer dessert" part.
If you do not follow this logic, the person who will read your architecture will be a little lost, because the "convention" wants a network architecture to respect these principles… If you don't have enough room, do your best 🙂
The IP address plan:
The purpose of an architecture is to have all the necessary information on one page! If you have room, put in your address plan. If you don't have a place, find a 🙂
Your architecture will evolve continuously! It is therefore essential to create architectural versions!
– Archive1 – Archiv1.01 – Archiv1.02 – Archive1.03…
– Archive2 – Archiv2.01 – Archive2.02…
– Archive3 – Archive3.01…
The version should be tracked on the title of the file.
Personally, I also like to put in the architecture the update date as well as the last person to have made changes.
Your architectures should be:
– clear, clear and precise
– regular updates
Follow these tips and you'll thank me later;)
Hoping you enjoyed this article!
Don't hesitate to let me know!!